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[ + ] First Aid [ + ] & Concussions Information

KITS LOCATED IN STORAGE BUILDING
&
INSIDE CONCESSIONS

Blunt Force - Concussions - Bleeding Control - Allergic Shock - Choking - Shock - CPR


Blunt Force Injury



          Any blunt injury to a player simply refers to the act of an object (such as another player) striking with force a part of the body. Collisions, for example, are common and generally do not require attention other than temporary rest. A force which causes bruising, swelling, or continual pain should have ice or a cool object applied to reduce pain and swelling.

          PPYSA provides ice for use in bruise and swelling reduction, available both at the storage building and concessions building for parents and staff to use.



          Coaches are encouraged to have their own first aid kits or ice packs on hand. One-use cold packs are available in both club first-aid kits.


          Continued pain, severe swelling, and discoloration may indicate traumatic injury and should be examined by a medical professional.


Concussions



           Concussions are receiving a lot of attention from coaches and doctors all across the country. Recognizing the signs and symptoms is very important (for both coaches and parents) to know when your child might need time to heal from a sudden impact to the head.

           If you suspect your child may have received a concussion from a head related injury or impact, it is imperative that they avoid the possibility of re-injury and they see a medical professional as soon as possible.

           All youth soccer coaches are required to complete and pass a CDC approved concussions course.




The below chart lists known symptoms of a potential concussion:

 


A child who has sustained a concussion may return to sports related activities in stages,
outlined in this chart below:




Bleeding Control



           Basic stoppage of bleeding generally involves cleaning the wound with water or antiseptic and the application of gauze or bandage to the wound until bleeding stops. If a very large, foreign object is in the wound, you should NOT remove it.

           Components for cleaning and bandaging can be found in the club's kits located in storage and concessions if your coach or a parent does not have bandages or their own kit on hand.

           After bleeding has been stopped, bind the wound tightly with additional bandage or other cloth material before applying a cold or ice pack. Use direct pressure against the wound with the ice or cold pack, applying that pressure for at least ten minutes.

           An affected limb may be raised above the body to help slow loss of blood while pressure is applied to a pinch or pressure point.


Allergic Shock ( Anaphylaxis )


Anaphylaxis may begin with severe itching of the eyes or face and, within minutes, progress to more serious symptoms. These symptoms include swallowing and breathing difficulties, abdominal pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, and angioedema (swelling similar to hives, but the swelling is beneath the skin instead of on the surface).

If you have symptoms of anaphylaxis, seek emergency medical attention immediately. The condition can quickly result in an increased heart rate, sudden weakness, a drop in blood pressure, shock, and ultimately unconsciousness and death.

There is only one rapidly effective treatment for anaphylaxis -- epinephrine by injection. Epinephrine is adrenaline and it rapidly reverses anaphylactic symptoms. It is typically given through an automatic injection device. The most common and most effective injection site is the thigh.

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If you are near someone who is going into anaphylactic shock, call for professional medical help immediately. CPR and other lifesaving measures may be required.

In addition to epinephrine, treatment for shock includes intravenous fluids and medicines that support the actions of the heart and circulatory system. After a person in shock is stabilized, antihistamines and steriods may be given to further reduce symptoms.


Choking



    If choking is occurring, the Red Cross recommends a "five-and-five" approach to delivering first aid:

  •     Give 5 back blows. First, deliver five back blows between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
  •     Give 5 abdominal thrusts. Perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver).
  •     Alternate between 5 blows and 5 thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.


    To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) on someone else:



  • Stand behind the person. Wrap your arms around the waist. Tip the person forward slightly.
  • Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person's navel.
  • Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick, upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up.
  • Perform a total of 5 abdominal thrusts, if needed. If the blockage still isn't dislodged, repeat the five-and-five cycle.




    To clear the airway of a choking infant younger than age 1:

  • Assume a seated position and hold the infant facedown on your forearm, which is resting on your thigh.

  • Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back using the heel of your hand. The combination of gravity and the back blows should release the blocking object.

  • Hold the infant faceup on your forearm with the head lower than the trunk if the above doesn't work. Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant's breastbone, give five quick chest compressions.

  • Repeat the back blows and chest thrusts if breathing doesn't resume. Call for emergency medical help.

  • Begin infant CPR if one of these techniques opens the airway but the infant doesn't resume breathing.


  •     If the child is older than age 1, give abdominal thrusts only.


Shock Recovery


 

        Shock occurs for various reasons, though most commonly onset due to sudden blood loss, mild injury, or a sudden shift of blood through the body. One can experience similar symptoms to shock if they sit or lay for a long time and then stand. Some of the primary symptoms are dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion, faintness, feeling weak, floating 'stars' in a person's vision, cool or clammy skin, the desire to suddenly fall asleep (loss of consciousness or passing out), and/or a feeling of heaviness or weightiness making it difficult to stand.



          Shock recovery involves laying down and elevating the feet above the body by at least 12 inches. The arms can also be elevated, as gravity pulls blood back toward the torso and brain; which should (within thirty minutes) alleviate symptoms.

                If neck injury is not suspected, the head may be turned to the side. The patient should be kept warm with any available coverings and kept comfortable until help arrives or the symptoms subside.


CPR ( Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation )


1. Check to see if the child is conscious

  • Make sure you and the child are in safe surroundings.
  • Tap the child gently.
  • Shout, “Are you OK?"
  • Look quickly to see if the child has any injuries, bleeding, or medical problems.

2. Check breathing

  • Place your ear near the child’s mouth and nose. Is there breath on your cheek? Is the child’s chest moving?

3. Begin chest compressions

If the child doesn’t respond and isn’t breathing:

  • Carefully place the child on his/her back. For a baby, be careful not to tilt the head back too far. If you suspect a neck or head injury, roll the baby over, moving his/her entire body at once.
  • For a baby, place two fingers on breastbone. For a child, place heel of one hand on center of chest at nipple line. You also can push with one hand on top of the other.
  • For a child, press down about 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs, as they are fragile and prone to fracture.
  • For a baby, press down about 1 1/2 inches, about 1/3 to 1/2 the depth of chest. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
  • Do 30 chest compressions, at the rate of 100 per minute. Let the chest rise completely between pushes.
  • Check to see if the child has started breathing.
  • Continue CPR until emergency help arrives.

4. Do rescue breathing

  • To open the airway, lift the child’s chin up with one hand. At the same time, tilt the head back by pushing down on the forehead with the other hand. Do not tilt the head back if the child is suspected of having a neck or head injury.
  • For a child, cover his mouth tightly with yours. Pinch the nose closed and give breaths.
  • For a baby, cover the mouth and nose with your mouth and give breaths.
  • Give the child two breaths, watching for the chest to rise each time. Each breath should take one second.

5. Repeat compressions and rescue breathing if the child is still not breathing

  • Two breaths can be given after every 30 chest compressions. If someone else is helping you, you should give 15 compressions, then 2 breaths.
  • Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the child starts breathing or emergency help arrives.
  • If you are alone with the child and have done 2 minutes of CPR (about 5 cycles of compressions and breathing), call 911 and find an AED.

6. Use an AED as soon as one is available

For children age 9 and under, use a pediatric automated external defibrillator (AED), if available. If a pediatric AED is not available, or for children age 1 and older, use a standard AED.

  • Turn on the AED.
  • Wipe the chest dry and attach the pads.
  • The AED will give you step-by-step instructions.
  • Continue compressions and follow AED prompts until emergency help arrives or the child starts breathing.
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